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Advisors embracing or considering environmental, social and governance focused investing should understand the different definitions used by asset managers, index providers, stock and bond issuers as well as their clients.

“ESG is not just about values but includes the underlying financial material risks within an industry,” said Mona Naqvi, senior director, ESG, at S&P Dow Jones Indices, a panelists at the Inside ETFs conference in Hollywood, Florida.

Jordan Farris, head of ESG product development at Nuveen, described four different capabilities for ESG:

• exclusionary screening of companies based on ethical values, regulations or norm-based violations

• best-in-class sectors and companies with superior ESG performance relative to their industry

• climate investment solutions, whereby asset allocation is aligned with the transition to a low-carbon economy

• ESG integration, which incorporates ESG data into the investment process to improve risk-adjusted returns

Farris scores companies from zero to 10 within each sector, comparing, for example, health care companies to one another rather than to companies in other industries such as energy.

Morningstar, in contrast, does the opposite in its recently revised ESG ratings, which account for material ESG risk differences between industries as well as between companies within a particular industry. In its new rating system, a tech company ranks higher on the ESG scale than an oil company because of its more limited impact on the environment and is also scored against other companies within the tech sector.

Index providers also differ on ESG scores. Nathalie Wallace, global head of ESG investment strategy at State Street Global Advisors, who was also on the panel, found that the ESG scoring system of two of the largest ESG index providers, MSCI and Sustainalytics, had a correlation of just over half (53.5%).

“We didn’t know which ones to choose so we looked at what is material for the financial future of companies,” said Wallace, adding that State Street now uses raw data from three rating companies and other data sources to choose the best-in-class ESG data providers.

Financial materiality is at the core of the ESG standards from the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board, which are the foundation of two recently introduced Bloomberg indexes: the Bloomberg SASB ESG equity index for U.S. large-cap stocks and the Bloomberg SASB ESG fixed income index for investment-grade bonds, both marketed by State Street Global Advisors.

“It’s taken time for people to believe in the ESG story,“ said Farris, adding that more companies also are providing ESG data. “Five years ago only about 25% [of the] S&P 500 did, now it’s about 80%.”

No IPOs Without Diverse Boards: Goldman

Goldman Sachs CEO David Solomon says his bank no longer will help take companies public in the United States and Europe if they do not have at least one “diverse” board member “with a focus on women.”

The new policy starts July 1, Solomon told CNBC on Jan. 23 from the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland. For 2021, firms looking to do IPOs with Goldman must have at least two “diverse” board members, he added.

Over the past four years, the performance of U.S. IPOs for firms with a woman on their respective boards is “significantly better” than for firms without such diversity, the executive pointed out — adding that some 60 companies in the United States and Europe recently went public with all white, male boards.

Goldman Sachs’ 11-member board includes four women — Michelle Burns, Drew Faust, Ellen Kullman and Jan Tighe. Its nine-member executive committee has three women — Chief Accounting Officer Sheara Fredman, Global Treasurer Beth Hammack and General Counsel Karen Seymour.

Though the investment bank could “miss some business” with the new approach, its leaders believe diversity can help “drive premium returns for … shareholders over time,” Solomon said. “This is an example of our saying, ‘How can we do something that we think is right and helps moves the market forward?’” he said.

Bernice Napach can be reached at [email protected]. Janet Levaux can be reached at [email protected].