UCLA researchers have found patients who do not follow prescribed medication cost the U.S. health care system an estimated $290 billion annually, which contributes to poor clinical outcomes, increased hospitalizations and higher mortality. Researchers conducted focus-group discussions with providers and 100 patients taking 410 medications. Providers felt responsible for assessing and addressing adherence but felt patients were ultimately responsible. Researchers also found interactions were conducted in a way that might address adherence for 62% of the 410 medications. These interactions included simple inquiries about adherence for 31.5% of the medications but in-depth questions for only 4.3%. Patients spontaneously disclosed non-adherence in 51% of 39 identified instances of non-adherence.