Close Close

Portfolio > Portfolio Construction

Managing Portfolios and Emotions in a Volatile Market

Your article was successfully shared with the contacts you provided.

It’s difficult to forget the market events we’ve experienced over the past few years. Market volatility has had a dramatic effect on clients, both emotionally and financially. We have seen trillions of dollars of wealth lost and record outflows from equity mutual funds into cash and fixed investments that are earning close to zero percent. Investors have been making emotional decisions and indiscriminately selling their holdings to try and prevent further losses rather than staying the course. This can play a significant role in reducing the long-term performance of a portfolio.

While the first quarter of 2012 was marked by reduced volatility, and we saw strong equity market returns, investors should not be lulled into a false sense of security. Market volatility will continue to persist, at least in the near future. In this age of instant and constant communication, even positive news can lead investors to make irrational investment decisions. In addition, investors’ confidence is low and they are unsure if this is a good buying opportunity or if they should head for “safer,” more stable investments. 

Investor behavior is often illustrated by the Emotional Cycle of Investing1. While the chart below shows how successful investors recognize points of risk and capitalize on these opportunities, many investors follow the path of emotional investing rather closely by buying high and selling low. This is the opposite of what a successful investment strategy should attempt to do. Many investors are currently at the Despondency/Depression parts of the cycle. Unfortunately, many of these same investors are sitting on the sidelines, which is not a viable long-term strategy.

Where do we go from here?

You can help your clients overcome the Emotional Cycle of Investing by working with them to create a portfolio that can help weather the ups and downs of the markets through proper diversification and asset allocation. This helps balance risk and reward, while also focusing on clients’ goals and investment time horizon.

Asset allocation is not new. A core premise is that three main asset classes–equities, fixed income and cash–have different risk and return characteristics, and behave differently from each other over time. By blending them together, you can get the best attributes of each one. The Callan chart below shows the performance of indexes over the past 10 years, and the 10-year average. While you can’t buy into these indexes, it’s important to see how they performed, and how a diversified portfolio produced a better overall result2.

For illustrative purposes only. The diversified portfolio is made up of equal allocations of each asset class listed on the chart, excluding cash. The performance for each individual asset class is based on its respective index performance as provided by Morningstar. Performance is note based on active management. It is important to remember that asset allocation and diversification do not ensure a profit or protect against a loss. Past performance is not indicative of future results. Source: Prudential Annuities. 12/2011

Over the past decade, there has been an important trend in asset allocation–the use of alternative asset classes. Alternative assets have low correlation with traditional asset classes. Combining alternative asset classes with traditional equities and fixed income investments can dampen volatility and help smooth out the ride, giving investors the potential for greater upside and reduced downside. In addition, the level of diversification is increased, and investors gain access to more sophisticated investment styles. Some alternative investments strategies are real return strategies–REITs, TIPS, private equity and natural resources. Others are absolute return strategies–options, futures, derivatives and currency hedges.

Alternative investments are one of the fastest growing asset classes. In particular, endowment portfolios have turned to alternative investments, since they look to avoid volatility due to the need for steady income streams.

Keep in mind, however, that asset allocation does not guarantee a profit or protect against a loss. Application of diversification does not ensure safety of principal or interest. It is possible to lose money by investing in securities.

Risk management with variable annuities

Market volatility has also led to variable annuities playing an increasingly important role in helping individual investors achieve a secure retirement. Due to the increasing want and need for protection, variable annuity assets have grown tremendously over the last decade. The protection is in the form of a guaranteed living benefit that, for an additional fee, provides clients with income they cannot outlive. In addition, clients gain access to professionally managed investment portfolios. This helps investors resist the urge to buy high and sell low, while also addressing a need.

There are risks associated with these guarantees that the insurance company must manage. One of the most common ways is to require that a minimum amount be allocated to fixed income investments. As a variation, some companies require that contract holders invest in asset allocation models. However, as the asset management industry evolves, insurance companies are transitioning to methods of volatility management that are embedded within the asset allocation model. One method involves establishing a target volatility for the portfolio. The asset allocator will shift money out of equities during times of heightened volatility and back into equities when volatility falls. However, it can also lead to challenges with accurately timing the markets. And it does not allow for a customizable experience for each contract holder. All investors will experience the exact same ups and downs, regardless of their unique circumstances. 

Another method uses a predetermined mathematical formula to manage volatility at the individual account value. With this method, assets are still moved out of equities during market downturns. However, there is no emotion involved with the decisions to transfer assets. It is based on the difference between the actual account value and the guaranteed value. When the gap reaches certain trigger points, funds are transferred from variable investments to a more conservative fixed income portfolio. When that gap narrows, the transfers go back into the variable investments. This approach aims to help protect account values in adverse markets, while still enabling participation in market gains, thus offering a distinctive and sustainable value proposition for both clients and shareholders.

A final note: As annuity companies also continue to try to strive for innovation, many have begun to offer alternative asset allocation portfolios as investment options. Examples would include:

  • A combination of traditional equities and fixed income, ETFs and real return strategies;
  • A range of absolute return-oriented investments, with a focus on innovative fixed income strategies; and
  • An endowment-like strategy, including exposure to commodities, global infrastructure and currencies.

As mentioned above, alternative assets give clients exposure to investments they may not be able to access on their own…inside their variable annuity.

Volatility is here to stay. You can help manage it by crafting a well-diversified portfolio, potentially including alternative investments. You can also consider a variable annuity as a way to provide guaranteed retirement income. This helps clients manage risk, as they are transferring that risk to the insurance company. 


1Russell Investments, 2008

2Asset classes represented in diversified portfolio chart:

International – MSCI EAFE Index

Large Cap Growth – Russell 1000 Growth Index

Large Cap Value – Russell 1000 Value Index

Small/Mid-Cap – Russell 2500 Index

Bonds – Barclays Capital U.S. Aggregate Bond Index

Global Bonds – JP Morgan Global Government Bond Index


Commodities – Dow Jones – UBS Commodities Index

Cash – Citigroup 3-Month T-Bill Index

Diversified – Equal allocations of asset classes shown above, excluding cash


Investors should consider the contract and the underlying portfolios’ investment objectives, risks, charges and expenses carefully before investing. This and other important information is contained in the prospectus, which can be obtained from your financial professional. Please read the prospectus carefully before investing.

A variable annuity is a long-term investment designed for retirement purposes. Investment returns and the principal value of an investment will fluctuate so that an investor’s units, when redeemed, may be worth more or less than the original investment. Withdrawals or surrenders may be subject to contingent deferred sales charges. Withdrawals and distributions of taxable amounts are subject to ordinary income tax and, if made prior to age 59-and-a-half, may be subject to an additional 10 percent federal income tax penalty. Withdrawals, other than from IRAs or employer retirement plans, are deemed to be gains out first for tax purposes. Withdrawals reduce the account value and the living and death benefits.

Annuity contracts contain exclusions, limitations, reductions of benefits and terms for keeping them in force. Your licensed financial professional can provide you with complete details.

Fixed income investments are subject to risk, including credit and interest rate risk. Because of these risks, a subaccount’s share value may fluctuate. If interest rates rise, bond prices usually decline. If interest rates decline, bond prices usually increase. The prices of longer-term bonds are generally more sensitive to changes in interest rates than those of shorter-term bonds.

ariable annuities are issued by Pruco Life Insurance Company (in New York, by Pruco Life Insurance Company of New Jersey), Newark, N.J. and distributed by Prudential Annuities Distributors, Inc., Shelton, CT. All are Prudential Financial companies and each is solely responsible for its own financial condition and contractual obligations.

All guarantees, including optional benefits, are backed by the claims-paying ability of the issuing company and do not apply to the underlying investment options.

Prudential Annuities uses a predetermined mathematical formula to help it manage your client’s highest daily guarantee. Each business day, the formula determines if any of the account value needs to be transferred into or out of the AST Investment Grade Bond Portfolio (the “Bond Portfolio”). At any time, some, most, or none of the account value may be allocated to the Bond Portfolio. Amounts invested in the Bond Portfolio will affect the ability to participate in a subsequent market recovery. Conversely, the account value may be higher at the beginning of the market recovery. We are not providing investment advice through the formula. See the prospectus for complete details.

Asset allocation is a method of diversification that positions assets among major investment categories. Asset allocation can be used to manage investment risk and potentially enhance returns. However, use of asset allocation does not guarantee a profit or protect against a loss. Inclusion of a subaccount in an asset allocation model does not indicate that it is superior to a subaccount not included in a model.

Certain portfolios may use leverage, short sales, and derivatives or engage in other speculative practices within their alternative investments. These practices include a high degree of risk and may increase the risk, size, and velocity of investment losses. Although certain alternative strategies seek to reduce risk by attempting to reduce correlation with equity and bond markets, no guarantee can be given that such efforts will be successful. The fees and expenses associated with alternative investments are generally higher than those for traditional investments.

Investments in foreign securities are subject to certain risks not associated with domestic investing, such as currency fluctuations, changes in political and economic conditions, less publicly available information and more volatile markets.

Diversification does not assure against loss in a declining market.

MSCI EAFE Index—Morgan Stanley Capital International Europe, Australasia, Far East Index is an unmanaged, capitalization-weighted index generally accepted as a benchmark for major overseas markets.

Russell 1000 Value Index is an unmanaged market cap-weighted index that measures the performance of those Russell 1000 companies with lower price-to-book ratios and lower forecasted growth values.

Barclays Capital U.S. Aggregate Bond Index (30 percent) is an unmanaged index comprised of more than 5,000 government and corporate bonds.

The Financial Times Stock Exchange National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts (FTSE NAREIT) Equity REITs Index is an unmanaged index which measures the performance of all real estate investment trusts listed on the New York Stock Exchange, the NASDAQ National Market, and the American Stock Exchange.

Citigroup 3-Month T-Bill Index-The index is an unmanaged index representing monthly return equivalents of yield averages of the last three-month Treasury Bill issues.

Russell 1000 Growth Index is an unmanaged market cap-weighted index that measures the performance of those Russell 1000 companies with higher price-to-book ratios and higher forecasted growth values.

Russell 2500 Index-The Russell 2500 Index measures the performance of the 2,500 smallest companies in the Russell 3000 Index, which represents approximately 20 percent of the total market capitalization of the Russell 3000 Index

JP Morgan Global Government Bond Index-This index is designed to track a basket of bonds issued in local currencies by emerging market governments.

The DJ-UBSCI is composed of commodities traded on U.S. exchanges, with the exception of aluminum, nickel and zinc, which trade on the London Metal Exchange (LME).

Investors cannot invest directly in an index or average. The returns for the indexes would be lower if they included the effects of sales charges, operating expenses of a mutual fund, or taxes.


© 2024 ALM Global, LLC, All Rights Reserved. Request academic re-use from All other uses, submit a request to [email protected]. For more information visit Asset & Logo Licensing.