Is there consensus among aging researchers that the decision-making capabilities of seniors decline as they age? The question has bearing on the current discussion about annuity sales to seniors.
A study led by Dr. Natalie Denburg and Dr. Catherine Cole of the University of Iowa concludes that 35% of the older adults studied were mentally impaired due to aging. The study, published in 2007, provides evidence that such seniors made bad decisions. The researchers suggest this is why a sizable portion of seniors fall victim to fraudulent advertising, and it could explain why seniors are often victims of fraud in general.
But are 35% of seniors really mentally impaired?
The claims of the Iowa study are so specific that I went back and looked at over 50 other academic journal studies on aging and cognition published through the end of 2007. My goal was to see whether the view that many seniors are impaired is supported or contradicted by other research. (Note: the exact age for when one becomes a senior is undefined in much of this work.)
By way of general background, many gerontologists believe that premature frontal brain lobe aging is probably why some seniors make bad decisions. The frontal lobe supports the working memory that contains current data, they point out, so if the frontal lobe has deteriorated, people do an incomplete job of thinking through all possible outcomes, with poor decisions the inevitable result.
Several researchers use a test called the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to see whether a person’s decision-making is up to snuff.
The Iowa study had 40 young adults (age 26-55) and 40 old adults (56-85) take the IGT test. It found that 37 of the 40 young adult subjects eventually wound up making decisions that maximized long-term rewards. However, of the 40 older adults, only 15 were “unimpaired” in that they strongly made good decisions, while 14 older adults were “impaired” in that they continued to make decisions that minimized long-term rewards. The remaining older adults produced mixed signals.
In other words, while fewer than 8% of young adults made bad decisions, a clear 35% of seniors made bad decisions.
If it is true that 35% of older adults may suffer from impaired decision-making without displaying any clear outward signs of impairment, the impact could be enormous. Older adults are making life and death decisions about their own medical care, and protecting their beneficiaries and themselves from financial risk.
If these findings are supported–that one out of three people over age 55 are decision-impaired–what should society do? The necessary fix would be far greater than banning lunch seminars. Should older adults be subjected to mandated decision-making tests every so many years, and should the courts order those who are found to be impaired to have a conservator make all meaningful decisions for these adults? What would be the impact on annuity and other financial sales to seniors?
Some studies specifically debate the validity of IGT in determining impairment, but there is also considerable research from the last several years which supports the contention of frontal lobe aging damage.