o Write out your talk or lay out your written presentation, then work back from

the end to the beginning.

o Identify five problems your talk will solve. Start with small problems, then

build to larger ones. Each beat will be a phrase or paragraph that will identify a

problem encapsulating the larger set of problems.

o Make notes of the opening and closing values of each beat and compare

them. Build by moving dynamically between the positive and negative charges

of the values.

o Read your presentation aloud to see how it unfolds.

o Remember your goal: There should be an overall change in value from negative

at the beginning to positive at the end, from unknowing and uninformed to in-

formed and empowered. You want people to watch, think, and feel, then draw

their own conclusions about what you’ve presented. If there’s no change in value,

you should toss it.