As every agent knows, life insurance premiums largely depend on the buyer’s health and habits. Smokers, for example, pay two to three times more for life insurance than nonsmokers. The bad news is that, as a result of these habits, some people suffer sticker shock when shopping for life insurance. The good news, of course, is that your clients can get better rates because of the decisions they make every day.

A new NerdWallet study identified the cities where typical residents pay more for life insurance because of lifestyle factors. The study focused on controllable factors that influence premiums: smoking, weight, fitness and the chance of an auto accident to create a score that ranks cities based on residents’ habits that drive up life insurance rates.

Here’s how we weighted the factors used to calculate the score:

Do residents smoke? This is 50 percent of the score. On average, smokers live 10 years less than nonsmokers, so life insurance companies charge them much more for coverage. For example, a 35-year-old man who doesn’t smoke pays an average of $239.89 a year for a 20-year term life policy for $500,000, but a smoker will pay $665.41 annually for the same coverage.

[For more information about life insurance rates, check out NerdWallet’s life insurance comparison tool.]

Are residents physically healthy/? This is 40 percent of the score. Exercise and a healthy diet can help prevent high blood pressure and diabetes, which drive up life insurance rates. Depending on an applicant’s health profile, rates can jump even if they don’t smoke. According to the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 36 percent of Americans are overweight and 23 percent don’t engage in physical activity. Most of the cities on our list have higher rates of obesity and physical inactivity than the rest of the U.S.

What is the likelihood that residents will get in a car accident? This is 10 percent of the score. One factor that life insurance companies often consider is a customer’s driving record. Although driving records are a function of a driver’s skill and other drivers, some cities are more dangerous for drivers than others. In our analysis, we looked at Allstate’s statistics on the likelihood that drivers will get in an accident relative to the national average.

Read on to find out which cities topped the list. Or click here to view the full original study.

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10. New Orleans, Louisiana

The number of overweight people in New Orleans is on par with the national average. However, New Orleans residents exercise less and smoke more than the rest of the country: 23 percent of New Orleans residents smoke, compared with 19 percent nationally. New Orleans did recently institute a smoking ban in restaurants, bars, casinos and other spots, which studies show will eventually decrease the number of smokers.

Likelihood of auto accident: 40%
Residents who don’t do physical activity: 27%
Overweight residents: 37%
Residents who smoke: 23%
Life insurance score: 24.605

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9. Moreno Valley, California

In Moreno Valley, there’s more smoking and less exercise than other places in the U.S. Here, 23 percent of residents smoke, which is about 4 percent above the national average. Residents also exercise at a lower rate: nearly a third, 30 percent, reported that they don’t do physical activity, which is about 7 percent above the national average. Smoking dramatically increases life insurance rates and the University of California, Riverside provides a list of resources, such as Nicotine Anonymous, for those planning to quit.

Likelihood of auto accident: 6%
Residents who don’t do physical activity: 30%
Overweight residents: 34%
Residents who smoke: 23%
Life insurance score: 24.596

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8. Madison, Wisconsin

On average, Madison residents smoke more and exercise less than the rest of the country. Both habits will increase life insurance rates. Even though Wisconsin has smoke-free laws, 24 percent of Madison residents smoke, which is higher than the national average.

Likelihood of auto accident: -18%
Residents who don’t do physical activity: 31%
Overweight residents: 33%
Residents who smoke: 24%
Life insurance score: 23.803

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7. Fort Wayne, Indiana

Even though Fort Wayne has laws that ban smoking in public places, 26 percent of people smoke here. Quitting smoking can help residents save money on life insurance premiums, and there are programs to help them quit. Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne offers the Freedom from Smoking program.

Likelihood of auto accident: -8%
Residents who don’t do physical activity: 23%
Overweight residents: 36%
Residents who smoke: 26%
Life insurance score: 23.366

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6. Detroit, Michigan

Here, more people smoke than the national average: 24 percent of Detroit residents are smokers, which is 5 percent above the national average. The Michigan Department of Health and Human Services recommends tobacco cessation programs, such as the Michigan Tobacco Hotline. Organizations such as the Henry Ford Health System also have classes to help people quit smoking. For Detroit residents looking for tips on living a healthy lifestyle, Healthy Detroit is a nonprofit that provides information and programming.

Likelihood of auto accident: 11%
Residents who don’t do physical activity: 28%
Overweight residents: 34%
Residents who smoke: 24%
Life insurance score: 22.849

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5. Louisville, Kentucky

People in Louisville are about as inactive and overweight as the rest of the country. However, the city has a much higher percentage of smokers compared with the rest of the country. Twenty-six percent of Louisville residents smoke. The Louisville Department of Health and Wellness supports programs that help residents quit smoking, such as the Cooper Clayton Method and Quit Now Kentucky, an online service.

Likelihood of auto accident: 2%
Residents who don’t do physical activity: 25%
Overweight residents: 35%
Residents who smoke: 26%
Life insurance score: 22.165

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4. Lubbock, Texas

In this Texas city, 26 percent of residents smoke. Smokers will usually pay more than nonsmokers for life insurance, but once they quit, they can find lower rates. The Texas Department of State Health Services provides information and programs for Texans about chronic diseases.

Likelihood of auto accident: -5%
Residents who don’t do physical activity: 31%
Overweight residents: 33%
Residents who smoke: 26%
Life insurance score: 18.511

s3. Modesto, California

When compared with the rest of the country, Modesto has a smaller percentage of overweight residents — 34 percent, which is less than the 36 percent average in the U.S. Unfortunately, Modesto has a higher percentage of people who don’t exercise and do smoke: 26 percent of Modesto residents smoke. Unlike many California cities, Modesto doesn’t ban the use of e-cigarettes in workplaces, restaurants and bars.

Likelihood of auto accident: 4%
Residents who don’t do physical activity: 30%
Overweight residents: 34%
Residents who smoke: 26% 
Life insurance score: 18.223

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2. Chesapeake, Virginia

Chesapeake residents’ habits are worse than the national average for every factor that we analyzed. The city’s residents smoke more, sit around more and are more overweight than the rest of the country. The Virginia Department of Health provides programming and services to help Chesapeake residents get more active. And people in this city are also more likely to get into traffic accidents.

Likelihood of auto accident: 3%
Residents who don’t do physical activity: 32%
Overweight residents: 39%
Residents who smoke: 25%
Life insurance score: 15.383

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1. Laredo, Texas

Laredo tops our list largely because it has a high percentage of unhealthy residents and smokers: 26 percent of Laredo’s residents smoke, while 34 percent of Laredo’s residents don’t do any physical activity (compared with the national average of 23 percent). In Laredo, the Healthy Eating and Active Living (HEAL) initiative helps residents develop healthy habits. Luckily, Laredo drivers are less likely to get into accidents than other drivers across the country. However, Laredo drivers with a lead foot might still face higher life insurance premiums if they have multiple tickets.

Likelihood of auto accident: -18%
Residents who don’t do physical activity: 34% 
Overweight residents: 38% 
Residents who smoke: 26% 
Life insurance score: 12.724