Christopher Philips, CFA, heads Vanguard Institutional Advisory Services, which assists and counsels institutional clients, including defined benefit plans, endowments, and foundations. Previously, he led a team of investment-only relationship managers in Vanguard Institutional Investor Services, and served as an senior investment analyst in Vanguard Investment Strategy Group, where he wrote and presented research on various topics, including international investing, indexing, and benchmark selection. Mr. Philips joined Vanguard in 2000. He earned a B.A. from Franklin and Marshall College and is a CFA® charterholder.